The Xerces Society is a science-based conservation organization, working with diverse partners that include scientists, land managers, educators, policymakers, farmers, and communities. By utilizing applied research, engaging in advocacy, providing educational resources, addressing policy implications, and building community, we endeavor to make meaningful long-term conservation a reality.
2022 Winter Ventilation Study
NHBA has continued its winter colony studies over the 2022-23 Winter by instrumenting
5 colonies with 5 sensors each to answer the question: “How does colony temperature
and relative humidity differ between colonies with a single lower entrance and a top +
bottom entrance?”. The data collection has been completed as of 4/1/23 and the
analysis is underway. The study setup, analysis and learnings will be available at:
One of the exciting outcomes of this project is we put together a Vapor Pressure Deficit table like the ones that farmers use in their greenhouses to help beekeepers interpret winter temp & relative humidity readings for instrumented colonies.
USDA Bee Laboratory-Beltsville, MD
The diagnosis of bee diseases has been a focus of this laboratory since its inception in 1891 and we operate a "Bee Disease Diagnosis Service" for beekeepers across the U.S.
There is no charge for this service.
Samples received of adult bees and beeswax comb (with and without bee brood) are examined for bacterial, fungal and microsporidian diseases as well as for two species of parasitic mites and other pests associated with honey bees (i.e., small hive beetle, Aethina tumida).
When requested, American foulbrood samples are cultured and isolates are screened for their sensitivity to Terramycin (oxytetracycline) and Tylan (tylosin).
The Bee Research Lab conducts research to improve the health of honey bee colonies and help the beekeeping industry maintain an adequate healthy supply of bees for the pollination of crops.
Farm Service Agency
FSA makes direct and guaranteed farm ownership (FO) and operating loans (OL) to family-size farmers and ranchers who cannot obtain commercial credit from a bank, Farm Credit System institution, or other lender. FSA loans can be used to purchase land, livestock, equipment, feed, seed, and supplies. Our loans can also be used to construct buildings or make farm improvements. See our loan information chart which describes maximum loan amounts, rates, term, and use of proceeds.
FSA loans are often provided to beginning farmers who cannot qualify for conventional loans because they have insufficient financial resources. FSA also helps established farmers who have suffered financial setbacks from natural disasters, or whose resources are too limited to maintain profitable farming operations.
The Deputy Administrator for Farm Programs (DAFP) is responsible for overseeing and implementing policies and procedures that regulate the delivery of federal farm programs. FSA farm programs help agricultural producers manage market risks, recover from disasters, and conserve and protect America's natural resources.
DAFP administers major portions of the farm bill including FSA's commodity price support activities (commodity loans and loan deficiency payments) and the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs, which provide vital income support to that nation's farmers and ranchers. Also, DAFP is responsible for other programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program, the nation's largest private lands conservation program, the Non-insured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP) and a variety of other disaster programs.
Sustainable Beekeeping, Skills and Knowledge List
Beekeepers ought to have the following skills and knowledge about beekeeping so as to
• Maintain healthy and productive honeybee colonies
• Increase their chances of a profitable bee related enterprise or
• Gain employment on a successful bee operation.
Download the PDF and rate your skills and knowledge of beekeeping. Set a target to meet your new goals toward sustainable beekeeping.
International Bee Research Association (IBRA)
IBRA produces a range of sources of information about bees for bee scientists, beekeepers and the general public:
- Journal of Apicultural Research – Our award winning referred scientific journal
- Bee World – Our popular journal that links beekeeping science and practice
- Books – covering all aspects of bee science, history, and beekeeping
- Leaflets and cards – providing information in a practical format.
- IBRA membership – is open to all individuals.
- The IBRA / Eva Crane Library collection – one of the largest collections of bee books and journals in the world, covering all aspects of bee science and beekeeping is now in the care of the National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.
- The IBRA / Eva Crane collection of historical artefacts is on display at the Bijenteeltmuseum at Kalmthout, Belgium.
- The IBRA register of bee boles and other beekeeping structures may be found here
If you are interested in publishing a bee-related book, then please do not hesitate to contact us.
We supply information to beekeepers, scientists, researchers, extension workers, schools and organisations around the world.
We attend and support conferences and bee conventions around the world. This provides an opportunity to distribute information and to meet our members.
Beekeeping Calendar for the Northeast
Cornell University has compiled a useful guide to aid the beekeeper and help keep on track of what is happening with your bees and what you need to do each month to stay on top of your colonies.
Honey Bees 911
What is swarming?
Swarming is the process by which a queen bee leaves the colony with a large group of worker bees in search of a new home. In some cases, a new queen is created, while the old queen takes off with about 60% of the workers to start a new hive. Honey bee swarms collect in large clusters that can sometimes be bigger than a basketball. They can contain thousands to tens-of-thousands-of bees. While they're not dangerous, you should keep your distance and contact a local beekeeper to safely relocate it.
Capture, Relocate, Preserve
Honey bee swarms are not dangerous, but they do need to find an appropriate home. Beekeepers can help by collecting the swarm. The Community Swarm Capture Program seeks to initiate a public reporting system to effectively capture and relocate swarms.
All are welcome!
Whether you have no hives or 100 hives, you are welcome to become a member!
Register your beekeeper association to share your meeting details on our website.
NH Queen Producers
Imagine that Honey
Kevin P Sargent
Loons Point Honey
Michael E Smith
McCormack's Bee Farm
White Mountain Apiary
Northern Bee Network
The Northern Bee Network is an online directory of individuals selling honey bee queens and nucs. It is free for producers, and all beekeepers can be listed by filling out a simple form. The goal is to have a directory where queen producers can find each other to share ideas and genetics and where beekeepers can find individuals selling local queens and bees. northernbeenetwork.org/
Hive Necropsy (Deadout Checklist)
Completing the Deadout checklist will help you determine why your hive died.
Check out The NH Honey Bee Diagnostic Network website for more information:
Ramsey Research Foundation
The Ramsey Research Foundation is dedicated to accelerating the pace of scientific progress by connecting everyone to the mission of protecting, preserving, and discovering our world.
Through donations large and small, the RRF has been able to fund critical research which could not have happened otherwise. Currently, funds are supporting international initiatives to understand biological threats to honey bees and other pollinators around the world. The recent discovery of multiple species of Asian Hornets in the Pacific Northwest underscores our need to better understand threats to our pollinators which aren't yet on our doorstep. Rapid and effective response when dealing with potentially invasive populations as soon as they arrive is paramount and thus an understanding of these creatures before they arrive is key.
As such, the RRF is currently conducting studies to catalog the lifecycle, vulnerabilities, and potential management methods for other exotic pests not yet in North America in addition to species already present. Our goal is to foster greater scientific literacy by ensuring this research is available for free to anyone who might be interested. To meet this goal, work conducted by the foundation will be available open access. It is our hope that greater involvement in science by the general public will raise public understanding, awareness, and trust in the scientific apparatus.
NH is Blooming
The data from the winter colony surveys indicated that there might be a correlation
between drought or other conditions which might cause poor or little pollen/nectar
availability. NHBA collected observations of which flowers were blooming across the
state from 2020-2022, if there were pollinators on those flowers, and if the observer
happens to notice, the color of any pollen on the bees. All of this data as well as some
basic analysis is available at:
The NHBA strongly recommends you register your apiary and hives. From the NH Department of Agriculture, Markets and Food:
Beekeepers are encouraged to voluntarily register their apiaries for several reasons. The contact information and apiary location is provided for notification purposes to licensed applicators applying pesticides under special permits, such as for mosquito control. It helps national honey bee organizations,such as the Apiary Inspectors of America, assess the health of the honey bee industry nationwide and develop better methods of honey bee management. It can also be helpful for state and national agricultural statistics and policy, enabling estimates of the size and value of the industry in New Hampshire. Additionally, the Division will inspect honeybees and/or apiary equipment that are being moved to another state to certify their apparent freedom from infectious diseases, parasites and/or pests.
Click on the link below to download the registration form:
Winter Moisture Observational Study
The NHBA Winter Hive Survey (2017-2019) listed moisture as one of the top 5 reasons for winter
colony loss. To understand more about this issue, NHBA ran a Winter Hive Moisture
Observational Study during the winter of 2020-21 collecting temperature and relative humidity
data to try to correlate management practices to moisture issues. The data analysis and study
results can be found at:
2020-21 NH Winter Hive Survey Results
- 78% of respondents have between 1-10 hives.
- Absconding was in the top 5 reasons for loss for the first time.
- Other was in the top 5 reasons for loss for the first time since 2016. These reports included severalcomments of:
- Excess viral load in 2020
- Inability to do cleansing flights.
- 2020 Honey Crop (New question added)
- Above Average: 27 apiaries
- Average: 80 apiaries
- Below Average: 153 apiaries
For more information visit the NH Honey Bee Diagnostic Network website.
Varroa Management Guide
The Honey Bee Health Coalition has developed the essential "Tools for Varroa Management: A Guide to Successful Varroa Testing and Control". It is updated frequently as research on the subject is constantly changing how we understand this deadly parasite.
In addition to the Varroa Management Guide, they have developed an interactive "Varroa Management Decision Tool" to help you determine when and what treatment to use depending on your management style and treatment parameters.
All this information is available for free at their website along with videos on understanding varroa, how to test and determine mite counts, and how to apply each available treatment.
Are you a NH beekeeper?
There's now a free resource for you to diagnose your hives.
Nosema can only be identified using a microscope and with the proper training. A network of trained volunteers in New Hampshire are ready to help you diagnose your honey bees.
The NH Honey Bee Diagnostic Network has instructions on how to collect and submit a sample for diagnosis here.
2021 Winter Wrap Study
During the 2021-22 Winter, NHBA conducted a follow-on to the moisture study to try to answer
the question “How does the type of wrap affect the inside temperature of the colony and
bee movement?” The data analysis and study results as well as basics about the
thermodynamics of the hive can be found at:
Pesticide Applicator Permit
If you are a beekeeper in NH and treat for mites and other pests you are required to have a Pesticide Applicators Permit in order to sell your honey. If you are the sole applicator in your apiary and do not apply pesticides for others than the permitting process is easy, quick and affordable. These beekeepers require a Private Applicator Permit.
To get your Private Applicator Permit simply fill out and mail this form: https://www.agriculture.nh.gov/publications-forms/documents/private-applicator-permit.pdf
Don't forget to include the $20 non-refundable fee.
Once permitted, you need to renew yearly and submit an end of year usage report. This process is very easy for most beekeepers and the Pesticide Division team is always available to answer your questions. You can contact them here:
You can read more about Private permitting at the Pesticide Division of the NH Department of Agriculture, Markets and Food here:
If you apply pesticides on the property of another, you must obtain a Commercial Applicator Permit. If you sell pesticides you must obtain a Dealer Permit.
American Bee Journal
The Journal has the honor of being the oldest English language beekeeping publication in the world. Today, Dadant and Sons has the privilege of publishing the American Bee Journal for subscribers throughout the world. Readership is concentrated among hobby and commercial beekeepers, bee supply dealers, queen breeders, package-bee shippers, honey packers, and entomologists.
Apiaries and Beekeeping in NH
The New Hampshire Department of Agriculture, Markets and Food has information on the laws and regulations for beekeeping and beekeepers in NH. A list of resources can be found on their website: https://www.agriculture.nh.gov/divisions/plant-industry/apiary-beekeeping.htm
Eastern Apiculture Society (EAS)
Every summer EAS conducts its Annual Conference consisting of lectures, workshops, vendor displays, short courses for beginning and advanced beekeepers, Master Beekeeper examinations and an annual business meeting in one of its 26 member states or provinces in the eastern U.S. and Canada. Over 400 people generally attend the conference each year.EAS publishes its newsletter, The EAS Journal, four times a year; sponsors awards to deserving bee researchers and graduate students; and offers research grants for applied research projects!
NH EAS Director Dorinda Priebe (2024)
Bee Informed Partnership
Supported initially by the United States Department of Agriculture and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, we became a 501(c)(3) non-profit in 2014 to continue working with beekeepers to better understand how we can manage healthier bees.
The key to our success is the true partnership we maintain among a wide range of disciplines including traditional honey bee science, economics, statistics, and medical research. This gives us a unique multidisciplinary perspective on the issues we study. And just as important as the tools are the people. We not only have leading honey bee researchers, but our board represents commercial beekeeping industries and our technical transfer team specialists, lab and IT teams are some of the most experienced in this field. https://beeinformed.org/
Our highly trained technical transfer specialists provide independent colony health assessments, colony sampling, full pest and pathogen diagnostics, and reporting of assessments. We deliver emergency response kits to operations of any size to assist in investigating reasons for failing colonies. We promote and manage a large, national Sentinel Apiary program where we encourage beekeepers from each state to monitor health metrics and colony weight to add to the national database. We then investigate relationships between forage, nectar flows and diseases. Our nonprofit works directly with industry and researchers to set up, test and analyze field trials of new feed or treatment products. We continue to annually survey beekeepers of all operational sizes for winter, summer and annual losses as well as collect and make available management practices that are associated with increased survivorship. Much of the data from the above initiatives can be found by visiting our Research portal.
Signature initiatives include the NAPPC (North American Pollinator Protection Campaign), National Pollinator Week, and the Ecoregional Planting Guides. Learn more about how Pollinator Partnership is dedicated exclusively to the health of pollinating animals by downloading our Protecting Pollinators, People, and the Planet brochure!
We are working to protect pollinators and their habitat with projects all over the North America and globally.
We manage various programs that promote pollinator health and provide public and private partners with the tools to get involved.
We work with a diverse set of partners including local, regional, and national governments; corporations; universities and others that are making exceptional pollinator protection happen across North America and beyond.
The Rehan Lab @ York
The lab has four main foci: molecular phylogeny, comparative genomics, behavioural ecology, and pollinator health. We employ these four levels of biological integration to study social insects and wild pollinators at multiple evolutionary scales.
National Honey Board
The National Honey Board advocates for the sustainable production of honey. We are committed to ensuring the honey you love is sustainable today and for future generations. This begins with healthy bees and extends to protecting the natural resources they depend on. That way, you can feel good about each drop and drizzle of honey you enjoy.
We're an industry-funded agriculture promotion group that educates consumers about the benefits and uses of honey and honey products. Our research, marketing, and promotional programs are funded by an assessment on domestic and imported honey and are designed to increase awareness and usage of honey by consumers, the foodservice industry, and food manufacturers.
The American Apitherapy Society, Inc.
The position of the American Apitherapy Society is that all products of the hive have a legitimate and appropriate place within the biomedical healthcare system, in the form of integrated and complementary medicine.
The AAS supports a world view, ecologic paradigm. This is a non-reductionist, holistic approach, which recognizes the interconnectedness of humans to the environment, and in particular the importance of the honey bee (Apis Spp.). As a concept of health, it seeks to addresses care of the whole person, through body, mind, and spirit; within a social/cultural, relationship, and environmental context, to promote optimal wellness, prevent and treat “dis-ease”
Currently, Apitherapy is a non-regulated practice, falling under the purview of herbal medicine, dietary and nutritional supplement regulations. Some forms of Apitherapy can be considered within the scope of practice laws for a variety of practitioners. Apitherapists may integrate techniques, products or therapies as a therapeutic partnership with people towards improving their overall health and well being. Doing so does not negate the validity of, or replace conventional medical therapies, but serves as a complement, to help individuals access their greatest healing potential.
American Bee Federation
For more than 75 years, the American Beekeeping Federation (ABF) has been working in the interest of all beekeepers, large and small, and those associated with the beekeeping industry to ensure the future of the honey bee. Today, there are many challenges facing the industry that are endangering the very existence of nature’s most valuable insect. From disease to shrinking habitat to detrimental legislation to new science that is modifying nectar sources in ways we have yet to fully understand, beekeepers rely on the ABF for the education they need to succeed in the business of keeping bees in today’s competitive world.
American Honey Producers Association
The American Honey Producers Association (AHPA) is an organization with over 550 members that are people just like you, beekeepers making their living from the production of honey.
From the backyard beekeeper to large commercial beekeeping, whether you run 1 to 2 hives or 80,000 hives, the AHPA pledges to work to improve the future of beekeeping for all.
The American Honey Producers Association has a strong reputation of successful performance on many national beekeeping and trade issues. Our members work with all levels of government to help advance the interest and economics of the American beekeeper. The leadership of the AHPA works diligently to take care of your needs on national and international front lines while you are out in the field working your bees
Apimondia is a non-governmental organisation that brings together beekeepers, manufacturers of beekeeping equipment and a wide variety of scientists involved in apiculture, apitherapy, pollination, development and economics.
Our main objective is to facilitate the exchange of information and discussions by organizing Congresses and Symposia where beekeepers, scientists, honey-traders, agents for development, technicians and legislators meet to listen, discuss and learn from one another.
The Bee Conservancy
The Bee Conservancy, formerly The Honeybee Conservancy, is a nonprofit organization established in 2009 in response to the bee crisis. We are a Project of Social and Environmental Entrepreneurs.
The Honeybee Conservancy was founded in 2009 by Guillermo Fernandez in response to the news that bees across the globe were in crisis. In fall of 2020, The Honeybee Conservancy relaunched as The Bee Conservancy to better capture our work protecting all bees and securing environmental and food justice through education, research, habitat creation, and advocacy.
Our initiatives, such as our flagship program Sponsor-a-Hive, have served hundreds of thousands of people across the United States, and protected an estimated 10 million bees to date.
Project Apis m.
Since 2006, we have infused over $10 million into honey bee research and $2.9 million into forage programs, resulting in science-driven resources for bees and beekeepers.
We work closely with commercial beekeepers, growers, and scientists in the USA and Canada to identify challenges as they arise. We then fund projects and direct strategic efforts focused on practical questions. PAm offers graduate scholarships to develop the next generation of bee scientists and has expanding efforts to put forage on the landscape where bees need it most.
We are a 501(c)5 nonprofit organization governed by a Board of commercial beekeepers and other agricultural stakeholders. A volunteer Science Advisory Committee of well-established honey bee research scientists helps guide our selection of rigorous, applied projects. We are proud to be collaborative, practical, accountable, efficient, and flexible.